Types of Social Change

Video for Change initiatives contribute to a number of different types of social change.

Building Capacities

  • Capacity Change — increases people’s knowledge, skills and access to information
  • Access Change — centres people’s voice and contribution, and creates paths for communities to make or participate in their own change
  • Institutional Change — develops institutions to support and sustain movements, reforms, policy change, behaviour change and communities

Influencing Individuals and Communities

  • Perception Change — supports shifts in individual or collective attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or the way certain groups or issues are represented in the public sphere
  • Behaviour Change — supports shifts in individual or collective behaviours
  • Cultural Change — shifts social practices, values, accepted negative terminologies, and modes of expression that predominate within society

Building Movements

  • Relational Change — creates or changes relationships by building or sustaining networks or communities
  • Positional Change — shifts power to contribute and make decisions, and opens up access to discourse and resources to lesser heard and disadvantaged communities
  • Discourse Change — supports new interaction and dialogue by creating spaces for communication, fostering new and unheard voices, and considering minority views and perspectives

Changing Structures

  • Policy Change — abolishes or alters existing government, institutional, or corporate policies or the creation of new ones
  • Legal Change — abolishes or alters existing laws or the creation of new ones
  • Norm Change — alters the practices of governments, companies or institutions
  • Economic Change — shifts the ways a market or economy (local or wider) functions

The above framework is adapted from Doc Society’s Impact Dynamics, Tanya NotleyLina Srivastava and the Video for Change Toolkit team.

This impact story about the Poor People’s Campaign in the USA is an example of how video can be used to build and support a social movement.

Impact Story: Poor People's Campaign

Title: Poor People’s Campaign – a national call for moral revival

Year: Started in 2018 still ongoing

Location: 40 states in America, the impact story focuses on New York State.

Initiated by: Repairers of the Breach and Kairos Center for Religions, Rights, and Social Justice. Within each state, the campaign is self-organized.

Problem: The negative effects of the interlocking evils of systemic racism, poverty, ecological devastation, militarism and the war economy, and the distorted moral narrative of religious nationalism in America on its people.

Goal of the videos: Support and build the overall movement through videos that educate and document.

Obtained Impact: Ongoing campaign support, awareness-raising that poverty is systemic and not the fault of individuals, increased capacity of Campaign members to use cameras and produce audio-visual material in support of the campaign.

Methodology: Constant production of short videos, combined with live events, gatherings, demonstrations and publications. Videos are screened and used to educate and document.

Budget: none, all volunteer.

Duration of the video: Short form videos, ranging from 2 minutes up to 30 minutes.

Duration of the project: Still ongoing.

The Poor People’s Campaign is a broad movement for the poor and affected communities in the United States of America. It tries to unite all those whose lives are negatively influenced by the effects of the interlocking evils of systemic racism, poverty, ecological devastation, militarism (America’s war economy) and the distorted moral narrative of religious nationalism in America. The roots of this movement go back to Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, whom, at the latter stages of his life, called for a ‘revolution of values.’ The Poor People’s campaign tries to reawaken this revolution. The campaign focuses on human rights and uses only non-violent protest strategies.

Things started in the Spring of 2018 with 40 days of civil disobedience. Every week campaigners were letting themselves get arrested for blocking streets and holding sit-ins. A volunteer team of videographers documented the events and prepared social media cuts. The civil disobedience would happen each Monday. On Tuesday and Wednesday, footage was edited, and on Thursday, the videos would go online using mainstream social media (Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, Twitter).

The New York State Poor People’s Campaign, the subject of this impact story, focused its distribution of these social media clips within its own state. The main purpose of these videos, at the start of the campaign, was to raise attention and rally (more) people for the next Monday’s civil disobedience.

“We are building something that can force changes at the State level and of course be part of a national movement that can force things to happen beyond New York.” ~Rev. Emily McNeill, Co-Chair NYC Poor People’s Campaign.

Filmmaker Peter Kinoy, with the support of Skylight Engagement and volunteers from Hunter College, produced the 30-minute Empire State Rumbling, which documents the start of the Poor People’s Campaign through the eyes of four powerful women involved. We learn about the goals of the campaign and meet an open fusion movement aimed at uniting all different types of people.

Empire State Rumbling has been used to rally support, document the campaign, raise funds, and educate people. Campaign meetings are organized around screenings of the video, and a bus tour further helped promote the campaign. Post-screening discussions brought people together to discuss the various issues the campaign is addressing.

The thing that’s most critical, is combining education with action. The impact lies in highlighting the idea that people, individually, are not to blame for their own poverty. We now have a situation where people start to understand their oppression, as a worker, a black person, a woman, etc. This can lead to identity politics, where one oppression is deemed more important than another, but in the 1st year of the Poor People’s Campaign we listened to everyone. Now there are 9 active organizing committees in regions throughout New York State.” ~Peter Kinoy, Filmmaker

Currently, under the working title Empire State Awakening, people are being trained to use video in an effort to help them tell their own stories. The visual storytelling that comes forth offers a portrait of the current political struggle within New York state and documents the current state of the Poor People’s campaign in New York State. Going public with stories of oppression under the Poor People’s campaign offers an opportunity for communities to better understand the political significance of their stories.

An example of a project within Empire State Awakening is this 10 minute video about the Shinnecock people of Long Island, an indigenous group whose traditions and land are threatened by capitalist forces. While this particular video is enjoyable to watch, the quality of the media output at the start of the campaign has, in general, not been good enough. In part because all videos are made by volunteers, without any budget. But more so, the campaign learned that having access to a camera and a platform for publication doesn’t automatically mean people are able to produce watchable and meaningful content. As involved filmmaker Peter Kinoy puts it:

Everybody knows how to use social media, everyone seems advanced in that. Very few understand the more sophisticated, multi-layered use of video. At the moment it’s mostly cell-phone work and results are not always watchable. There’s no access or training for more sophisticated treatment. That’s why we started to provide education.

At the moment, active organizing committees within New York State can put in requests for training if they are already using video. The training centers around problems of visual storytelling. The aim is to help campaigners publish better audio-visual material, build their capacity to use media, and ultimately become better (visual) storytellers.

According to Peter Kinoy, the development of a people’s media must always go hand in hand with any political movement. “And it works vice versa as well; you can’t develop a strong movement without a strong independent people’s media along with it.”

Today, video plays an important role within the production of independent people’s media content; it might even be its most important role. Activism can no longer let media production be an afterthought. Holding a rally or organizing a demonstration while treating the documentation of it like ‘let’s all not forget to take pictures,’ is no longer acceptable. The use of media has to be part of the organizing, part of the campaign. The people responsible for documentation need to be an integral part of the campaign.

Breaking the old habits of media as an after-thought is hard. But after 2 years, the New York State Campaign has endorsed a state-wide education/documentation project called Empire State Awakening” ~Peter Kinoy, Filmmaker.

This impact story from a Video for Change initiative in Papua, Indonesia, offers real examples of the types of social change a video can contribute to.

Impact Story: Love Letter to a Soldier

Title: Love Letter to a Soldier

Location: Indonesia

Issue: Personal effects of national military presence in a conflict region.

Aim/purpose of the video: A visual cry for help from a Papuan woman to an Indonesian soldier

Organisation: Papuan Voices, Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation and EngageMedia

Featured methodologies: Video for Advocacy

Video length: 7 mins.

Year: 2011

Love Letter to the Soldier tells the story of Maria ‘Eti’ Goreti. She was a school student in 2008 when she was courted by Samsul Bacharudin, an Indonesian soldier from Java who was stationed at her village in Bupul, near the border of West Papua and Papua New Guinea.

Samsul left Bupul when Eti was five months pregnant and promised to return, but Eti never heard from him again, even after the birth of their daughter, Yani. The community also rejected Eti for having a relationship with an Indonesian soldier, who are often perceived as occupiers or colonisers.


The film’s director, Wenda Tokomonowir, collaborated with Eti to tell her story. Through this approach, the film was able to achieve the following impacts:

  • Influence Individuals and Communities  Eti reported that working collaboratively to tell her story through the video helped her to be better understood in her local community. This enabled some community understanding and empathy.
  • Build Capacities
    • The film won best documentary at the South to South Film Festival, and Eti was given half the prize money to support her family.
    • Eti used the prize money to contribute to a business cooperative of which she is a member.
    • The filmmaker learnt new skills, travelled to screenings and film festivals, and won the above mentioned award. These successes supported an increase in confidence and her profile as an activist and filmmaker, and secured further employment.
  • Building Movements  The video has been screened more than 50 times both nationally and internationally. Schools, universities and advocacy organisations have used it as a tool for discussion, education and mobilisation.
  • Change Structures
    • Women’s organisations have used the video to talk about issues relating to women’s rights in Indonesia and West Papua. Papuan human rights organisations used the video to discuss human rights issues and violations in West Papua. In one case it was presented to a UN Universal Periodic Review committee to assess the human rights situation in West Papua.
    • The cooperative that received Eti’s prize money used this money to help them start a small indigenous medicine business.

For further information regarding this video and its impacts read this blogpost.

Values and Methods